News of New Species - GASTROPODA


Cymbula bebae Fernandes & Rolan, 1995 - (Argonauta, September, 1995, p. 15) - Shell small (holotype measures 8.1mm), with an elongated aperture that far exceeds the apex of the spire. Aperture narrow posteriorly, becoming wider anteriorly; outer lip smooth, posteriorly flattened. Dorsum finely, spirally striated, with well marked growth lines irregularly distributed. The shell is violet-pink, darker on the columella. The type locality is Luanda, Angola, where it was collected in 70 meters.


Perotrochus gotoi Anseeuw, 1990 - (La Conchiglia, October - December, 1990, p. 10) - Holotype 54.5mm in length. Teleoconch with strong spiral cords intersected by regularly spaced axial growth lines, giving the surface a clearly beaded appearance; a white, beaded spiral cord appears in the sutural zone of the fifth whorl, extending progressively towards the apex and contrasting with the yellowish-orange background of the apical whorls. Of the species occurring in Philippine waters, it is closest to P. salmianus, but differs in its smaller size, the absence of raised red lines bordering the selenizone, a longer slit and the color of the base. The type locality is Balut Is., Davao, Philippines, in 120-200 fathoms.


Haliotis fatui Geiger, 1999 - (The Nautilus 113(3):73) - Shell to 60 mm, somewhat arched; strong knobby bumps on dorsal surface of shell, usually in few, distinct spiral rows, occasionally in prosocline rays. Color muddy green, brown, yellow brown. Color pattern irregular to blotchy, no spiral elements, no prosocline rays.

Notes: The only species similar to H. fatui is H. varia Linnaeus, l758. In typical H. varia, i.e., the well-known green form that comes from the Philippines, the shell is more arched and usually heavier, and the knobs are more weakly developed than in H. fatui. The apertural lip is more outwardly curved, and the holes tend to be larger and less numerous, although this last character is extremely variable within species. The coloration in H. varia consists typically of some oblique, prosocline, jagged flammules, in green tones, whereas in H. fatui the distribution of pigment is rather blotchy with green and brown specimens being equally represented. There are also important anatomical differences between the two species. Although the type locality is Mang Island, northern Marianas, most specimens have been found on Tonga.



Calliostoma dedonderi Vilvens, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(3-4): 87) - Shell up to 10.5 mm. Protoconch whitish, of 1.5 weakly reticulated whorls. Teleoconch of 7 whorls bearing beaded spiral cords. Columella weakly arched, smooth; callus completely closing umbilicus. Ground color cream, with reddish-brown axial flammules, dashes, and orange spots; base slightly lighter, cords with orange or brown dashes; umbilical area white. It is compared with C. suduirauti Bozzetti, 1997, which differs in sculpture and in having a partially closed umbilicus. C. katoi Sakurai, 1994 has smooth spiral cords and an open umbilicus. It also compared to C. sagamiensis Ishida & Ushida, 1977 and C. paucicostatum Kosuge, 1984. Type material: Balicasag Is., Bohol, Philippines, in 140 m, fished by tangle nets.

Calliostoma emmanueli Vilvens, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(1): 4) - Shell up to 12 mm, imperforate, conical. Protoconch of one whorl with weak, somewhat reticulated sculpture. Teleoconch of 7 flat-sided whorls, bearing spiral cords; first whorl with two quite smooth cords; other whorls bearing beaded cords increasing in number from 3 to 6. Intermediate spaces between cords smooth, of similar size to cords. Aperture subquadrate. Shell light brown; first whorls with larger reddish-brown patches; base lighter-colored. This new species resembles C. jackelynae Bozzetti, 1997, but the latter has smooth subsutural, instead of granular, cords and chiefly an elliptical, elongated aperture. C. vicdani Kosuge, 1984 has 11 granular cords. Type locality: Balicasag Island, Bohol, Philippines Islands, in 180-240 m.

Calliostoma houarti Vilvens, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(1): 4) - Shell up to 24 mm, imperforate, conical, convex, with an elevated spire. Protoconch of 1.5 whorls, with a weak reticulated sculpture. Teleoconch of 8 whorls, bearing granular spiral cords that increase in number from 2-10. Round nodules well spaced. Shell light yellowish-brown; first whorls reddish-brown. C. filiareginae Sakurai, 1994 is smaller, has a less elevated spire, a more angulate periphery, and more closely packed spiral cords. C. sakashitai Sakurai, 1994 has minute spines on spiral cords. Type locality: Balicasag Island, Bohol, Philippine Islands, in 240 m.

Calliostoma poppei Vilvens, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(1): 3) - Shell up to 15 mm, conical in shape. Protoconch of one whorl with weak, somewhat reticulated sculpture. Teleoconch of 8 flat-sided whorls bearing beaded spiral cords, growing in number from 3 to 6, with intermediate axial prosocline ribs connecting beads of spiral whorls. Columella smooth, partly covering the open umbilicus. Ground color pink or reddish-brown, with brown flammules or blotches; two peripheral cords and basal cords show alternate white and brown areas. It resembles C. ticaonicum (A. Adams, 1851), but differs by having only a narrow umbilicus and fewer spiral cords (about 12 in C. ticaonicum). C. babelicum Habe, 1961 is concave in shape. C. iris Kuroda & Habe, 1961 has about 10 spiral cords. Type locality: Balicasag Island. Bohol, Philippines Islands, in 180 m.


Agathodonta elongata Vilvens, 2001 - (Novapex 2(2): 57)- Shell up to 22.7 mm; spire high, almost conical, apical angle about 57 degrees, anomalous. Teleoconch of 5.5-6 whorls, bearing coarse spiral cords. Suture visible, not canaliculated, shell depressed between penultimate suprasutural and subsutural cords. Aperture ovate, transversely elongated, with a straight outline when looking at shell from profile; outer lip flaring, lirate within with 8 primary plications and one or two secondary plications intercalated between them. Columella straight, with two prominent teeth; abapical tooth stongest, bifid or trifid; columellar shield strong, with denticles near columella, almost concealing basal cords over which it lies. Base nearly flat. Shell light brown, with large axial, dark brown or blackish-brown markings on specimen from Philippine Islands. The two Recent species belonging to this genus, A. nortoni McLean, 1984 and A. meteorae Neubert, 1998, are smaller, have more convex whorls and circular or slightly ovate aperture. The type material was collected in Kai Islands, Indonesia, and in northern Mindanao, in deep water.


Stomatolina danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 290: 43) - Shell up to 15 mm, light wight, dorsoventrally compressed. Two spiral striae appear in early whorls, striae becoming thin cords in later whorls. These two cords will mark the shoulder and the periphery of the whorls. Closely spaced, obliquely radiating growth marks affect the spirals and give the shell a matte to almost granular texture. The new species is very similar to Stomatolina decolorata (Gould, l848) which, among other differences, has a larger shell, more rounded whorls and a conical spire, not shouldered as in the new species. In Stomatolina rubra (Lamarck, 1822) the apical whorls have angled shoulders, but these are softened by a spiral row of rounded tubercles, and its sculpture is microscopically cancellate. Neither of the two earlier taxa have been reported with certainty from the Red Sea. Type locality: Egyptian east coast of Sinai, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, in 20 m.


Clanculus korkosi Singer, Mienis & Geiger, 2000 - (La Conchiglia 294-295: 32) - Shell up to about 14 mm, depressed, turbiniform, with a turreted profile. Aperture sculptured with ridges all around but no enlarged anal ridge on outer lip. Protoconch, small, smooth, beaked, of one whorl. Teleoconch of about 6 whorls, sutures not channeled. Umbilicus narrow, deep; rim ringed by 7-8 blunt umbilical ridges. A double ridge spirals up the cone of the umbilicus. Surface light orange-brown to golden-brown, some specimens decorated with slanting variegated markings. Apex pink, protoconch glassy-white. A characteristic row of black dots starts on the shoulder cord of the first whorl as a short reddish streak, later replaced by reddish dots that become progressively darker and eventually become black on the third whorl. There are usually 4 cords bearing the black dots on the last whorl. Aperture and umbilicus white. Of the Red Sea congeners, C. puniceus (Philippi, 1856) and C. pharonius (Linnaeus, 1758) have a strongly developed anal tooth, are much larger, and have a different sculpture and color pattern. The polychromatic C. tonnerrei (G. & H. Neville, 1874) differs in general form, color and details of the armature of the aperture. Type locality: Blue Hole, Sinai, Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt, in 14-40 m.

Clanculus richeri Vilvens, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(3-4): 95) - Shell up to 14 mm, spire rather depressed, ratio height/width 0.87 -0.93, apical angle 80º-85º, umbilicus open to apex. Last whorl with 4 primary cords and 3 secondary cords, intervals between cords narrower than the cords themselves. Primary cords of later whorls with alternate pinkish-white and reddish-brown areas. Columella almost straight; basal tooth prominent, with 3 ridges; upper columella denticles present, abapical denticle sharper than others. It is compared with C. margaritarius (Philippi, 1846), which has a higher spire and fewer spiral cords (5 or 6)with black spots in some of them. C. clangulus (Wood, 1828) has intervals between cords wider than the cords themselves, has an angulate periphery, a wider umbilicus, an upper columella tooth and a bifid, not trifid, basal columella tooth. Type material: Chesterfield Plateau, New Caledonia, in 32-48 m.


Turbo (Batillus) chinensis Ozawa and Tomida, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 269) - Shell up to about 75 mm, with a large body whorl commonly with two rows of densely arranged small spines at angulations. It is closest to T. cornutus, Lightfoot, l786. However, the new species differs from it by a more convex operculum with an indistinct spiral rib, and in having spines which are smaller, not hollowed, more densely arranged and situated more adapically and much finer granules. Type locality: Rocky shores of Shanwei, Guangdong Province, China.

Turbo debesi Kreipl & Alf, 2000 - (La Conchiglia 294-295: 119) - Shell up to 21.4 mm including spines, thin but solid. Body whorl biangulate, upper angulation bearing strong, sawtooth-like scaly processes. Subsutural ramp sculptured with 5 spiral rows of scales. Base with 6 equal rows of small scales. Umbilicus completely closed. Basic color pinkish to beige with axial flames of white and brown; columella white. Operculum white, smooth, with a central swelling bearing an umbilicus-shaped spiral depression surrounded by 2 strong spiral ribs. The Bolma-like shape of this species separates it from other Turbo species. It is closest to Turbo squamosus Gray, 1847, which differs in its coloration and operculum. Type locality: Whitfords Reef, Perth, Western Australia, in 10-12 m.Turbo debesi Kreipl & Alf, 2000 (La Conchiglia 294-295: 119) - Shell up to 21.4 mm including spines, thin but solid. Body whorl biangulate, upper angulation bearing strong, sawtooth-like scaly processes. Subsutural ramp sculptured with 5 spiral rows of scales. Base with 6 equal rows of small scales. Umbilicus completely closed. Basic color pinkish to beige with axial flames of white and brown; columella white. Operculum white, smooth, with a central swelling bearing an umbilicus-shaped spiral depression surrounded by 2 strong spiral ribs. The Bolma-like shape of this species separates it from other Turbo species. It is closest to Turbo squamosus Gray, 1847, which differs in its coloration and operculum. Type locality: Whitfords Reef, Perth, Western Australia, in 10-12 m.

Turbo (Marmarostoma) seuiensis Smits and Moolenbeeck, 1995 - (Venus 54(2): 110) - Shell up to 54 mm in heigth and 47 mm in width. Operculum greenish, slightly ovate (largest diameter 23.2 mm), smooth and glossy with fine pustules on the side. Off-white to beige with irregular chestnut brown markings, columella white, apertural edge greenish, inside aperture nacreous white. The fine pustular appearance is a diagnostic character and makes its identification easy. Type locality: West Irian (Irian Jaya), Yapen Island, Serui Bay.

Bothropoma rubrostriatum Rolan, Rubio & Fernandez, 1997 - (Argonauta 11(1): 19) ­ Holotype 1.43 mm; shell discoid, solid, with a low spire. Shell white with red blotches, usually more evident in the cords and at the base, forming axial rows of small rectangles. Operculum externally concave and lacking sculpture. The more similar species known from the Caribbean are those of the genus Homalopoma, and they are all very different. The new species is only known from Cienfuegos and Los Canarreos, in southern Cuba, in 10­56 meters.


We follow Hickman and McLean in their Systematic Revision and Suprageneric Classification of Trochacean Gastropods (1990) and place Angaria in Turbinidae, subfamily Angariinae.

Angaria lilianae Monsecour & Monsecour, 2000 (Gloria Maris 38(6): 90) - Shell up to 33 mm; shoulders of teleoconch whorls flat, ornamented with raised spiral lines darker than background. Peristome round, flattened apically; umbilicus rather narrow, deep; posterior keel bearing 6-8 flat, heavy spines bending aperturally, each spine with 3-4 ribs ornamented with short lamellae; median keel poorly developed, (?)sometimes wanting; anterior keel rather sharp, marked by a row of small, purplish spines, 3 secondary and "a number" of tertiary spiny cords between main keels; 6-8 rows of small, purplish spines between anterior keel and umbilicus. Shell color pink to red, umbilical area sometimes darker; spines blackish with white in earlier whorls, off-white in last whorl. It is compared to Angaria delphinus (Linnaeus, 1758), with which it is sympatric. A. lilianae differs in coloration, form and position of spines, less pronounced anterior keel, fewer tertiary cords, and shape of umbilicus. It is similar to A. javanica Monsecour & Monsecour, 1999, "but the general shape will distinguish both species at once."

Comments: There are a number of described taxa which seem to be closer to this new taxon than A. delphinus.


Batillaria flectosiphonata Ozawa, 1996 - (Venus 55(3): 189) - Shell up to 30 mm. It differs from all other Japanese species of Batillaria, B. zonalis, B. multiformis and B. cumingi by having a distorted and deeply concave columella and siphonal canal which is reflected to the left. It differs from B. solida in having a more slender and thinner shell with distinct axial ribs. Type locality : on intertidal rocky bottom at Komi, Iriomote Is., Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.


Strombus (Laevistrombus) guidoi Man and Turck, 1998 - (Gloria Maris 36(5-6): 73) - Shell up to 54 m; outer lip pointed posteriorly and much thickened. Very similar to S. canarium and S. turturella, from which it differs by its white color and the distinct shape of the posterior canal. All 35 specimens in the type lot show these characters. Type locality: Port Vila, Efate, Vanuatu, in 2 m.

Tibia (Rimellopsis) laurenti Duchamps, 1992 - (Apex, September, 1992, p.51) - To 46.7mm., can only be confused with T. powisi: laurenti has last 5 whorls almost smooth while powisi has obvious spiral cords 2) laurenti lacks axial striae between spiral cords, thus not pitted between spiral cords; powisi has axial striae, creating a row of pits between spiral cords 3) laurenti has shiny spire; powisi is shiny only on top of the spiral cords 4) sutures in powisi bordered on both sides by a spiral cord; laurenti bordered only on lower side 5) in laurenti, upper side of last whorl beneath suture is smooth on ventral side; not so in powisi 6) in laurenti, upper external border of columella, where it joins last whorl, is clearly higher, forming a shallow groove; in powisi this border is hardly or not at all elevated. Off New Caledonia in 220-230 meters.


Crepidula argentina Simone, Pastorino & Penchaszadeh, 2000 - (The Nautilus 114(4):127) - Shell up to 40 mm, slightly convex; male specimens very thin, brittle, transparent, planar. Opaque-white externally, sometimes with diffused radial orange lines; porcelain-white internally, sometimes with radial brownish lines. It differs from C. protea by being larger and wider, particularly in young specimens. C. protea has an elliptical aperture with a thicker and more convex shell, while the new species has a subcircular aperture and a thinner and flatter shell. Both species differ primarily in their anatomical features. Distribution: Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, from Mar del Plata to the mouth of Rio Negro, on banks of Mytilus edulis platensis, 35-50 meters in depth.


Erronea caurica nabeqensis Heiman & Mienis, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 293:11) - The new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies, among other characteristics, by having an oval, elongate shape instead of being narrowly cylindrical, by the curved aperture and by the number of columellar teeth. It is compared with all other described subspecies of Erronea caurica. Type locality: Nabeq, 25-30 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh, in the northern part of the Red Sea.

Lyncina camelopardalis sharmiensis Heiman & Mienis, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 290: 39) - The proposed new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies by its much larger size (up to 72 mm), deltoidal and humped form, more curved aperture posteriorly, and the paler color of the dorsum, with white flecks which are not raised. Type locality: Ras Nasrani, near Sharm-el-Sheikh, at the northern tip of the Red Sea.

Luria pulchra sinaiensis Heiman & Mienis, 2000 - (La Conchiglia 294-295:127) - It differs from the nominate species by its larger size (up to 69 mm); more globose, slightly humped shape; and more pronounced extremities. Type locality: Elat, at northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba.

Notadusta omii Ikeda, 1998 - (Venus 57(4): 259) -Shell to 22.2 mm; morphologically very similar to N. musumea Kuroda & Habe, l960; however, N. musumea has a constant pyriform shape while N. omii is drop-shaped; N. musumea has anterior terminals orange-yellow in color, but N. omii's are white to yellow white with two distinct terminal spots; spots on margins of N. musumea are more condensed than those of the new species; the labral denticles of N. omii are widely curved below the terminal ridge while those of N. musumea are straight. N. omii also resembles N. katsuae (Kuroda, l960); however, N. omii has a distinct long, concave fossula and unstained denticles while N. katsuae has an indistinct fossula and brown-stained denticles. The new species has been collected in 100-395 m in tangle nets and dredgings from Japan to the Philippines and New Caledonia.

Pustularia chiapponii Lorenz, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 292:17) - Shell greatly inflated, globular; extremities distinctly rostrate but barely margined. It belongs to the group of pustulose species without a spiral blotch; therefore, the only similar species is P. bistrinotata, from which it differs by the complete absence of basal blotches and by longer teeth which extend far across the base and the labrum, and are never interrupted by a callus bridge. Furthermore, the teeth meet with the dorsal granules, which are often connected. In P. bistrinotata the pustules are usually separate and distinct from each other, and P. bistrinotata's dorsal blotches are almost absent in the new species. The type locality is Borongang, eastern Samar, Philippines.

Zoila lobettiana Raybaudi, 1995 - (World Shells, June, 1995, p. 15) - It is closest to Z. rosselli, from which it differs in having a more elongated shape, more rounded extremities and margins, a less conspicuous fossula and white, barely visible teeth. The new species is also heavier and is distinctly bicolored. The type locality is the Great Australian Bight, South Australia, in 200 meters.

Emilio Jorge Powers informs us that this is not a valid species. It was described from fakes made from Zoila rosselli.


Aclyvolva nicolamassierae Fehse, 1999 (La Conchiglia 292: 51) - Shell up to 16.78 mm, lanceolate; terminals short, tapering at either end, anterior terminal spatulate. Anal canal irregularly curved to the right. Base callused, callus with very fine dot-like pits. Aperture long, irregularly curved, very narrow, broadening anteriorly due to constriction of outer lip. Outer lip flattened, broad only centrally, callused, without crenulations, and obliquely reflected inwards. Color rust-brown, aperture lip and funiculum yellowish-brown, fossula pale flesh-colored. It is compared to Aclyvolva lanceolata (Sowerby II, 1848), but the new species is geographically separated, has more regular and finer transverse striae, a curved anal canal, a narrower aperture, and a more callused base. Type locality: Boucan Canot, near St. Gilles, Ile de la Réunion, in 40 meters.

Crenavolva (Crenavolva) martini Fehse, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 292: 54) - Shell up to 10.73 mm, rhomboid, angularly shouldered at two third of its length. Dorsum sculpted with numerous wavy striae intersected by fine longitudinal growth lines, giving the dorsum a velvety appearance. Base heavily callused, smooth, glossy, callosity forming a round edge at center of base. Dorsum mauve, with a diffused cloud of paler color on shoulder at central dorsum; callosity of apertural lip orange to yellowish-brown, base white; carinal edge, funiculum, and anterior terminal rosy-white. It is closest to the Australian Crenavolva (C.) cruentata Gowlett-Holmes & Holmes, 1989. However, the new species differs in general appearance, color, and the pattern of the dorsal striations. Type locality: Boucan Canot, Ile de la Réunion, in 45 m.

Cymbovula massierorum Fehse, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 292: 47) - Shell up to 11.58 mm, elongate ovate and bulbously inflated; terminals very short, tapering evenly at either end, anterior terminal spatulate. A characteristic dark yellow line encircles the shell and separates the flesh-colored dorsum from the white base. It differs from C. deflexa (Sowerby II, 1848), among other characters, by the bulbously inflated shell, shorter terminals, broader aperture lip, and flesh-colored dorsum, in contrast to the rosy-gray color of C. deflexa. The new species is closest to C. kurtziana Cate, 1976, but differs by having a broader carinal edge, a more swollen shell centrally, and by the characteristic yellow line. Type locality: Pemba, N. Mozambique, in 4-5 m.

Cymbula bebae Fernandes & Rolan, 1995 - (Argonauta, September, 1995, p. 15) Shell small (holotype measures 8.1mm), with an elongated aperture that far exceeds the apex of the spire. Aperture narrow posteriorly, becoming wider anteriorly; outer lip smooth, posteriorly flattened. Dorsum finely, spirally striated, with well marked growth lines irregularly distributed. The shell is violet-pink, darker on the columella. The type locality is Luanda, Angola, where it was collected in 70 meters.

Phenacovolva (Pellasimnia) poppei Fehse, 2001 - (La Conchiglia 297: 39) - Shell up to 36 mm, spindle-shaped, milky translucent, thin but strong; dorsum smooth, except for fine longitudinal growth lines, glossy. Dorsal color predominantly reddish to yellowish-beige, with three narrow transverse bands of lighter color on dorsum and extremities. A bright, reddish-orange band wraps around the terminals. Liltved (1989:128) synonymized this species with P. weaveri Cate, 1973. The author states that the new species is noticeably larger and more inflated, has longer terminals, broader aperture, and a bright reddish-orange band at terminals. Type locality: Ras Hafun, NE Somalia, east Africa, trawled in deep water.



Trivia levantina Smriglio, Mariottini & Buzzurro, 1998 - (Bollettino Malacologico 33 (9-12): 161) - Shell up to 7.5 mm, glossy, red-brown dorsally, columella and labrum (lip) milky-white, terminals pink; transverse ribs dorsally pale beige, almost white terminally. Labrum medially thickened, extending slightly beyond lateral profile of body whorl, bearing 17-18 coarse labral denticles; denticles equally spaced on inner edge continuing over dorsum as uninterrupted transverse ribs, ribs 20-25 in number, terminating at medio-dorsal depression. It is compared with T. spongicola Monterosato, 1923, only Mediterranean species with distinct medio-dorsal depression. However, the new taxon has a more solid, more cylindrical shell, less protruding at terminals, lower number of ribs, a more pronounced fossula, and a narrower aperture. While T. spongicola is uniformly colored, T. levantina has paler transverse ribs. It is known only from the Mediterranean Sea, where it has been collected in infralittoral hard bottoms by diving and dredging.

Trivia valeriae Hart, 1996 - (La Conchiglia, April-June, 1996, p. 37) - Shell almost spherical in shape, milky white and up to 15mm in length. This new species from New Zealand has no conchological resemblance to T. merces or T. oryza, the other two Trivia species found in that country. Of the Australian species, it is closest to T. producta, which is larger, less globular and with a spire completely concealed. The spire of T. valeriae is partially exposed, the terminals are less produced and there are consistently fewer labial and columellar denticles. Dredged in 590-640 meters on the Three King Ridge off northern New Zealand.

Fossatrivia suduirauti Lorenz, 1996 - (La Conchiglia, April-June, 1996, p.50) - Shell up to 11.5mm, inflated, pyriform, hardly calloused; extremities slightly produced, tinted with bright orange. Columellar area inflated, showing 12-13 coarse ridges which form distinct teeth along the columella. The two specimens known were taken by fishing nets in 140 meters off Balicasag Is., Bohol, Philippines.

Niveria (Cleotrivia) werneri Fehse, 1999 - (Club Conchylia 31(1-2):5) -Shell white, up to 4.49 mm, sub-globose; terminals only slightly produced; base slightly convex, almost straight. Labial lip fairly broad, wide centrally, becoming narrower at either end. Twenty-five ribs cover the entire shell of the holotype, including the terminal collars, where ribs become longitudinal. Transverse ribbing not interrupted. The new species is similar to N. dorsennus Cate, l979, from South Australia, but the latter has a deep dorsal groove. It is also similar to N. leucosphaera Schilder, l931, from the Gulf of Mexico, which is more inflated, has an inconspicuous dorsal grove, and a more produced fossula. C. werneri is strictly a West African species and ranges from Senegal to Angola. Type locality: Almadies, Senegal.

Niveria (Cleotrivia) coletteae Fehse, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 292: 55) - Shell up to 3.78 mm, thin, glassy, spherical, terminals hardly produced; sculptured with spiral ribs which cover entire shell, forming sharp teeth at apertural edge and at fossula; ribs interrupted dorsally at the well-developed medial furrow. Shell is white. It differs from N. (C.) globosa (Sowerby II, l832) by the thin, translucent shell, the deeply cut dorsal furrow, the well-developed fossula, and the overall stronger sculpture. Type locality: Boucan Canot, Ile de la Réunion, in 40 m.

Triviella franziskae Fehse & Massier, 2000 - (La Conchiglia 294-295: 123) - Shell up to 18 mm, nearly globular, thin, glossy. Dorsum beige to creamy-white, rest of the shell milky-white. It is compared with Trivia aperta (Swainson, 1822), from which it differs by its thicker labrum with fewer denticles, coarse columellar dentition, a poorly developed edentate fossula, a much narrower aperture, and a considerably glossier base and labrum. The authors consider it closest to T. lemaitrei (Liltved, l986); however, the new species has a thicker lip, a much narrower aperture of even width, and smooth columella and fossula. Type locality: Kommetjie, west coast of Cape Peninsula, South Africa, in 41 m.

Trivirostra poppei Fehse, 1999 - (La Conchiglia 290: 23) - Very close toTrivirostra oryza oryza (Lamarck, 1811), with which it has been confused. The new species differs in having a noticeably narrower lip, a more slender shell, and ribs that characteristically interlock at dorsal furrow. It is also compared with T. spioinsula Cate, 1979, from which it differs by having a more curved aperture which is widened at the siphonal canal, by the more developed and concave fossula, coarser ribs, and the features of the animal. Type locality: Nacala Bay, northern Mozambique.


Erato tetatua Hart, 1996 - (La Conchiglia, April-June, 1996, p. 39) - Mature shells are bulbous, lightweight and semitranslucent. Labrum thickened, with 15 denticles along inner margin; columellar peristome dentate. No recent Erato species has been described from New Zealand waters. The new species resembles no known species in the Australasian region. Dredged in 590-640 meters on the Three Kings Ridge off northern New Zealand.


Naticarius pumilus Kubo, 1997 - (Venus 56(1): 1) - Shell up to 3.75 mm, globular and thick. Umbilicus narrow and deep, with a crescent-shaped umbilical callus. Color off-white with four spiral rows of bright pinkish-purple spots and two vague pink spiral stripes on body whorl. Operculum with six ribs; outermost rib has appressed, tile-shaped projections. The new species is the smallest to date in this genus, and differs from all other Japanese species in the genus by their different coloration. Type locality: Nago Bay, Okinawa; in muddy sand covered by living Foraminifera.


Cassis norai Prati, 1995 - (World Shells, September, 1995, p. 44) - Shell up to 146mm with a very characteristic triangularly elongated shell. It is closest to the Caribbean C. flammea, from which it differs in its elongated shape and in having brown-stained teeth inside the outer lip. It has been collected only at Channel Sao Vincente, Cape Verde Archipelago, West Africa.

Cassis (Hypocassis) patamakanthini Parth, 2000 - (La Conchiglia 294-295: 87) - Shell 26.7 mm in length, thick, of 4 ½ whorls, last whorl covering about 90 % of shell length. Color orange-yellow, varices cream colored crossed by orange stripes. Protoconch smooth, 2.1 mm in diameter, paucispiral, darker than the rest of the shell. Last teleoconch whorl spirally ornamented with eight large, round nodes at the shoulder; immediately below there is a second row of smaller oblong nodes; three additional spiral bands of thinner ribs and diminishing strength follow the second row. A deep furrow separates the anterior-most band from the siphonal canal. The general appearance is that of heavily nodulose, interrupted axial ribs. Outer lip slightly serrated. The very small size, coloring, and sculpture of this species readily separates it from other congeneric species. The single specimen was dredged from deep water off Perth, Western Australia by Taiwanese trawlers.

Comments: In September, 1999, I visited Mr. Hugh Morrison, the well-known shell dealer residing in Perth, Australia. At that time, Mr. Morrison showed me several specimens of this remarkable species, which he was researching for future publication . After reading in Mr. Parth's description that there was only one specimen known. I contacted Mr. Morrison to be sure that it was the same taxon. He informed me that it was, that he had six specimens in his posession, and that "the species is not uncommon in material from Cray-fishermen, due west of Geraldton, Western Australia. It appears to have a range from 30-50 metres and perhaps deeper. There appears to be some degree of sexual dimorphism." It is unfortunate that the holotype of this Australian species rests in Phuket's Seashell Museum rather than in a public institution, preferably Australian.

Cypraecassis (Cypraecassis) wilmae Kreipl & Alf, 2001 - (La Conchiglia 297: 43) - This new taxon has been considered a form of C. coarctata Sowerby, 1825 until now. Among others, the author presents the following differences between the two taxa: C. coarctata has a cylindrical-ovate shape, reaches 90 mm in length, has a teleoconch of 4.5-5 whorls, has 5-6 knobs per row, smooth between rows, the upper third of the outer lip is reflected, and has a hardly visible groove across columellar callus. C. wilmae is ovoid in shape, reaches less than 40 mm in length, has a teleoconch of 3.73 whorls, has 8-9 knobs per row with spiral rows of small beads between rows, its outer lip not reflected inwardly, and has a very distinct groove across columellar callus. Type locality: Secas Islands, Golfo de Chiriquí, southwestern Panama.

Phalium muangmani L. Raybaudi & Prati, 1995 - (World Shells, March, 1995, p. 14) - This new species is very similar to P. flammiferum (Roding), but with a more slender shell. It has a smooth body whorl "crossed only by two subsutural grooves above, the uppermost of which causes and stresses a considerable corded swelling of the sutural portion of the whorl. This last cording appears crossed by fine axial grooves, which give it a considerable roughness." It is compared to P. flammiferum, which is "distinguished by completely different characteristics." The twelve specimens of the type material were collected off the coast of Ranong, western Thailand.


Cymatium (Septa) mixtum Arthur & Garcia-Talavera, 1990 - (La Conchiglia, July-September, 1990, p.9) - The species is compared with C. occidentale, C. rubeculum and C. hepaticum with which, the authors state, it can be confused, therein the specific name. A consistent feature than can "initially" be used to distinguish this species is the uninterrupted white band that covers the fifth spiral cord and extends all around the body whorl, although this feature is sometimes present in C. rubeculum, its closest relative. C. mixtum, however, has finer axial sculpture, closer and relatively more prominent spiral cords and stronger and more closely spaced apertural plicae. The varices of C. mixtum generally appear rather taller than on the other species of the subgenus because the first spiral cord is rather prominent. The type material comes from the northern Indian Ocean and east, to New Caledonia.


Ficus villai Petuch, 1998 - (The Nautilus 111(1): 33) ­ It is extremely close to F. communis. According to the author the new species differs from F. communis by having a more slender shell with a higher, stepped spire; by having a sculpture pattern composed of thick, prominent, high­relief, primary spiral cords that dominate the sculpture, while F. communis has much lower­relief, primary spiral cords that are nearly equal in size to the secondary cords. Also F. villai has a much darker­colored shell, generally with dark longitudinal flammules and always with a prominent dark­brown end to the siphonal canal, while F. communis is a lighter­colored shell, lacking the longitudinal, "zebra"­type flammules and the darkly colored anterior end. Distribution: Miskito coast, Nicaragua, but may extend from the Honduran Miskito Coast, near Cabo Gracias a Dios, southward to Bluefield, Nicaragua.

I have in my collection Ficus communis from the northern and southern Gulf of Mexico (Holbox I. area), as well as from eastern Honduras. I have not been able to detect any of the difference that separate F. villai from F. communis. Perhaps I don't have that species.


Oocorys lussii Bozzetti, 1990 - (La Conchiglia, July-September, 1990, p. 46) - Shell 36.5mm in length, light beige with columella, aperture and external lip white; spiral sculpture of thick cords evenly spaced; axial cords more numerous but less prominent than spiral cords, forming granules where they cross. This species is known only from a single specimen collected off Durban, South Africa, in 550 meters.


Triphora calva Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991 - (Apex, December, 1991, p.82) - A brown, shallow water species, 3 mm in length, with a single nuclear whorl. It seems to be restricted to the northern Caribbean, from Key Biscayne and the Bahamas to Belize. Shells lacking protoconch may be confused with T. modesta (C.B.Adams), another all-brown species which has a multispiral protoconch.

Cosmotriphora arnoldoi Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991 - (Apex, December, 1991, p.81) - Holotype 2.8 by 0.9mm, with dark brown protoconch of 5 whorls; nucleus very small, pointed, densely covered with irregularly spaced granules; all other protoconch whorls with fine axial riblets. Small size of the protoconch nucleus and of shell itself, and irregularly spaced dark brown dots on glossy white shell make this taxon easily recognizable.

Isotriphora taenialba (Rolan & Espinosa, 1994) - (Basteria, Vol. 58, 1994, p.64)- Shell sinistral, up to 5.5 mm; cream or light brown with the upper cord and suture dark brown; the last whorl is brown. Aperture with outer lip projecting and with two folds. It is compared to I. peetersae (Moolenbeek & Faber, l989), which has bigger nodules with smaller spaces between them. In I. peetersae the two first whorls of the teleoconch are milky white, the rest brown, whereas in I. taenialba the first whorl has a brown suture, the upper cord is white and the lower cream. The type locality is Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, in 10-30 meters.


Cirsotrema bennettorum García, 2000 - (NOVAPEX 1(3-4): 105) - Shell turbinate, thick, white, up to 33.2 mm. Protoconch white, smooth, thin, translucent, of two whorls; first whorl minute, second whorl much larger, bulbous, offset from first teleoconch whorl. Early teleoconch whorls convex, later whorls shouldered. Last whorl as wide as it is high; height slightly more than half of length of shell, with a heavy basal cord that fuses with base of lip, creating a wide lobe. Varices randomly arranged, thick, slightly reflected, with prominent spine at shoulder. Shell sculpture with narrow, reflected axial ribs between varices with shoulder spines where not broken. Intervals between ribs with numerous, poorly defined cords that tend to go up the ribs abaperturally. The Sthenorytis-like shape and the heavy and numerous spiny varices distinguish this species from any other Cirsotrema. Type material: Dredged off northern New Caledonia in 264-270 m.

Claviscala turrita Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 260) - Shell up to 45 mm, yellowish-brown, turreted, with round-quadrate, moderately thick whorls. Basal cord not well-developed, with distinct outer margin. No umbilicus present. It is similar to C. terebraloides Kilburn, l975 and C. kuroharai Habe, l961, from which it differs by lacking the suprasutural spiral ridge that those species show. C. turrita also resembles C. midwayensis Habe and Kosuge, l970, but has weaker and more numerous axial ribs. Type locality: S. of Kushimoto, Kii Peninsula, Japan, in 520 m.

Claviscala solar Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 261) - Shell up to 45 mm, yellowish-brown with black or dark-brown spots; whorls rounded, moderately thick. Surface with 20-26 weak axial ribs, increasing in number abapically, and with a single, strong varix on each whorl. Fine spiral and axial striae form a textiled or microscopically granular sculpture. Type locality: South of Tanabe, Kii Peninsula, Japan, in 240 m.

Epitonium fabrizioi Pastorino and Penchaszadeh, 1998 - (The Nautius 112(2):43) - Shell up to 13 mm, chalky, thin, opaque. Protoconch of 4.25 smooth whorls. It is closest to E. georgettina, with which it is sympatric. The latter has a straighter shell and less convex whorls. The ribs of the new species are sharper, thinner, and increase in number with growth. E. fabrizioi has a paucispiral, thin and translucent operculum, whereas that of E. georgettina is multispiral, thick and opaque. Type locality: Puerto Piramides, Chubut Province, Argentina, where it occurs intertidally.

Epitonium (Kiiscala) laxatoides Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 263) - Shell up to 25 mm, milky white, conical, with round, glossy, thin whorls. Spire moderately elevated with 9 whorls. Teleoconch with 7 whorls, the last 2-3 do not touch adjacent whorls. The new species is similar to E. (Nitidiscala) hancocki Dushane, l970, but differs in having disjuncted whorls. Type locality: South of Kushimoto, Kii Peninsula, Japan, in 520 m.

Graciliscala confusa Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(3): 175) - Shell 2-5 mm, diameter 1-2 mm, thin and fragile. Body whorl rounded and large, one third of the shell height. Umbilicus closed. The new species morphologically resembles G. ishimotoi Masahito and Habe, l976; G. rimbogai Masahito and Habe, l976; and G. koshimagani Nakayama, 1991, but differs from them in having a more inflated body whorl, thinner axial costae and finer spiral threads. Type locality: S. of Kirimezaki, Kii Peninsula, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan; 50 to 90 m deep.

Lampropalia enamelis Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 262) - Shell up to 25 mm, yellowish-brown, with round, glossy, thin and translucently corneous whorls. Protoconch polished, smooth, white. Surface with 18-22 blunt axial ribs which increase in number and have wider interspaces; ribs slightly nodular at either end on first 5-7 teleoconch whorls. Body whorl with a single, brown basal cord. L. nitida Kuroda and Ito, l961, has more nodular axial ribs and its protoconch has slightly plicated whorls.Type locality: South of Kushimoto, Kii Peninsula, Japan, in 520m.

Mazescala koyamai Nakayama, 1995 - (Venus 54(4): 262) - Shell up to 33 mm, milky-white with rounded, thin and fragile whorls. Surface with 52-55 thin axial costae which peak above the periphery, suggesting a shoulder. Teleoconch whorls 13 in number, rounded, tightly coiled and with a deep suture. Type locality: S. of Tanabe, Kii Peninsula, Japan, in 220-280 m.